Chemical Data :
Molecular Weight: 365.512
Molecular Formula: C23H31N3O
AKB-48, which is also known as APINACA, is a synthetic cannabinoid of the indazole class.
AKB-48 bears a structural relation to AB-PINACA. Both compounds have an indazole core structure with a pentyl side chain substituted to the nitrogen at R1 and a carboxamide attached to the indazole carbon R3. In AKB-48 this carboxamide is in turn N-subsituted with an adamantly moiety as opposed to the L-valinamide in AB-PINACA.
AKB-48 has the systematic and formal IUPAC name N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentylindazole-3-carboxamide. It has a relative molar mass of 365.51 grams and an empirical formula C23H31N3O.
It acts as a moderately potent and full agonist at human endocannabinoid receptor CB1 with a Ki of 304.5 nM and EC50 value of 585 nM.
Synthetic cannabinoids like AKB-48 are full agonists at the receptor unlike THC, the primary psychoactive constituent of marijuana. This means that the effects of synthetic cannabinoids are much stronger that herbal cannabis and can often be uncomfortably strong for users. It also means that the synthetics have potential for overdose unlike traditional marijuana. Synthetic cannabinoids have been linked to hospitalisations, seizures and deaths. This is due to their extreme potency, which makes overdose easy in unwitting users.
The chemical was first identified in Japan in March of 2012 as one ingredient in a synthetic cannabinoid blend that was being sold.
There are no studies in to the health effects of short term or long term recreational use of endocannabinoids such as AKB-48 in humans. Its toxicological profile remains unknown.
The chemical is not fit for human or animal consumption.
Unverifiable online reports can shed some light in to the subjective effects of this compound.
It is reported as being very long lasting with effects noticeable for 2-6 hours after use. One report claimed it had effects similar to JWH-210 but approximately 2-3 times stronger in their estimation. Effects are said to continue to rise steeply for a long period of time in comparison in herbal marijuana which levels off much sooner.
Other effects reported include colour enhancement which is comparable to a high dose of herbal marihuana, a strong body high which is often described as a warm tingling sensation, talkativeness, relaxation and a minor psychedelic like effect. Some open eye and closed eye visuals have been reported.
Reports claim that effects are similar to the indica strain of herbal marijuana and that it is quite sedating. Additionally significant pain relief has been reported from use of AKB48.
Negative effects that have been reported include feelings of paranoia. It may also induce feelings of sickness and nausea.
Synthetic cannabinoids such as AKB-48 are habit forming and addictive. Users often find that with continual use a tolerance forms. Cessation after such use is often accompanied by uncomfortable withdrawal effects and cravings.
Use of cannabinoids has been linked to psychosis. Users may be at risk if using higher doses or if using over a long period. Adolescents and young adults may increase their risk of developing schizophrenia.
Other names and synonyms
1H-Indazole-3-carboxamide, 1-pentyl-N-tricyclo[184.108.40.206,7]dec-1-yl- [ACD/Index Name]
N-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazol-3-carboxamid [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
N-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
N-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]